Lord Kitchener Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1850 – 1916 *** Full Name: Horatio Herbert Kitchener *** Occupation: Senior British Army Officer during World War I *** Date of Birth: Lord Kitchener was born on June 24th 1850 *** Place of Birth: Lord Kitchener was born in Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland *** Family background: His father was Lt. Col. Henry Horatio Kitchener and his mother was Frances Anne Chevallier. Having sold his commission ex-officers were encouraged to purchase land in Ireland. Thereafter the family moved to Switzerland *** Early life and childhood: He grew up in Switzerland *** Education: Lord Kitchener attended school in Montreux before attending the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England ***
Lord Kitchener Fact 1: Lord Kitchener was born on June 24th 1850 and during the 19th century period in history when many empires across the globe collapsed, the Spanish, first and second French, Holy Roman, Mughal and Chinese but the British and Russian Empires, the United States and German Empire where on the rise.
Lord Kitchener Fact 2: Having come out of the Academy he joined the French field ambulance unit during the Franco-Prussian War.
Lord Kitchener Fact 3: Lord Kitchener contracted pneumonia at which time his father arranged to bring him back to England.
Lord Kitchener Fact 4: In 1871 he joined the Royal Engineers but would receive severed reprimand from the Duke of Cambridge, who was the Commander-in-Chief, for his earlier service in the French forces as it seriously violated the British neutrality.
Lord Kitchener Fact 5: Lord Kitchener went on to serve in Cyprus, Egypt and also Palestine as a surveyor and also learned to speak Arabic. In 1908 his brother Walter also in the army became Governor of Bermuda.
Lord Kitchener Fact 6: At twenty four years of age in 1874, Lord Kitchener was assigned to map survey the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration Fund. At that time he was a Royal Engineers officer.
Lord Kitchener Fact 7: When Egypt became a British puppet state, which meant that its ruler was still the Khedive, they needed the assistance of the British within their military to give assistance. In that respect Kitchener became the second in command of an Egyptian Cavalry regiment and in 1884 took part in the unsuccessful relief expedition in the Sudan.
Lord Kitchener Fact 8: In 1898 Lord Kitchener had become Governor General of the Sudan and would head up a program of restoration of the governance of the Sudanese.
Lord Kitchener Fact 9: In December of 1899 together with Lord Roberts aboard the RMS Dunottar Castle they landed in South Africa with huge British reinforcements during the Second Boer War. By 1900 he had replaced Roberts and became overall commander.Lord Kitchener Fact 17: Having very reluctantly supported Churchill’s catastrophic campaign in Gallipoli, Kitchener’s reputation politically was severely damaged with no little help on French’s behalf.
Lord Kitchener Fact 10: Two years later Lord Kitchener would be appointed Commander-in-Chief in India and immediately took charge of restructuring the Indian Army.
Lord Kitchener Fact 11: By 1911 Lord Kitchener made a return to Egypt as Consul General and as a British Agent while Abbas Hilmi II was Khedive.
Lord Kitchener Fact 12: As war was declared in 1914 Prime Minister Asquith immediately appointed Lord Kitchener to Secretary of State for War.
Lord Kitchener Fact 13: He would be one of the few that saw this conflict lasting many years and costing many lives and so instigated a huge recruitment campaign which led to the creation of the one of the most recognizable posters ever created.
Lord Kitchener Fact 14: The Cabinet Secretary Maurice Hankey said of him “The great outstanding fact is that within eighteen months of the outbreak of the war, when he had found a people reliant on sea-power, and essentially non-military in their outlook, he had conceived and brought into being, completely equipped in every way, a national army capable of holding its own against the armies of the greatest military Power the world had ever seen."
Lord Kitchener Fact 15: In September Lord Kitchener travelled to France where he met with various ministers to discuss current events.
Lord Kitchener Fact 16: By early 1915 more strain was put on the relationship between Field Marshall Sir John French, the Commander of the British Expeditionary Force and Lord Kitchener, French believed the war would be over by the summer, Kitchener did not.
Lord Kitchener Fact 18: Kitchener was called to answer questions in the House of Common’s in front of two hundred members and when he advised them what he had attempted to put in the place to aid the war effort and what had actually been provided he was roundly thanked for his efforts.
Lord Kitchener Fact 19: On June the 15th 1916 Lord Kitchener set sail aboard HMS Oak, later transferring to HMS Hampshire, an armored cruiser, on a diplomatic mission to Russia. En route, during a Force 9 gale the HMS Hampshire struck a mine, just placed by the recently launched German U-boat U-75 off of the West coast of the Orkney Islands, the HMS Hampshire was sunk.
Influence and Legacy: Recent historians have come to believe that although Kitchener, at the time, was not given the credit for certain actions and preparations he had implemented have come to see the merit in his actions and given him the acknowledgement he duly deserved.
List of Medals Awarded to Lord Kitchener: Knight of the Garter *** Knight of the Order of St Patrick *** Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath *** Member of the Order of Merit *** Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India *** Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George *** Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire ***
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